Comparison of global foundations in 2023

Also known as:StiftungStiftungFoundationTrustTrust
Best use of foundation?Charitable activitiesAsset management and tax planningAsset management and tax planningAsset management and tax planningAsset management and tax planning
Requires capital injection to local account before proceeding with registration?YesYesYesNoNo
How soon can we supply you a foundation registration certificate?4 weeks4 weeks4 weeks2 weeks2 weeks
How long to supply corporate bank account numbers?2 months2 months2 months3 months2 months
How soon can the foundation start holding assets?2 months2 months2 months3 months2 months
How soon can the foundation start hiring staff and signing agreements?4 weeks4 weeks4 weeks2 weeks2 weeks
Corporate tax rate on annual net profits from trading income?8.5%12.5%18%8.7%Up to 1%
Corporate tax rate on annual net profits from investment income?Up to 8.5%0%Up to 18%Up to 8.7%Up to 1%
Limited liability entity?YesYesYesYesYes
Government approval required for foreign owners?NoNoNoNoNo
Resident council member or legal representative required?YesYesOnly if tradingNoNo
Registered agent required?NoNoNoYesYes
Minimum paid up share capital?€ 50,000€ 30,000€ 50,000US$1US$1
Can trade with global customers?YesYesYesYesYes
Corporate bank account location?UBSLGTDeutsche BankCitibankWells Fargo
Average total business set up engagement costs?€ 33,190€ 32,195Request a proposalRequest a proposalRequest a proposal
Average total engagement period?3 months3 months2 months2 months2 months
Accounting and tax considerationsSwitzerlandLiechtensteinLuxembourgDelawareNevada
Legally tax exempt if properly structured?NoYesYesYesYes
Tax incentives available in the country of registration?YesYesYesYesYes
Must file an annual tax return?YesYesYesYesYes
Must file annual financial statements?YesYesYesYesYes
Must appoint an auditor?YesYesNoNoNo
Can access to double taxation treaties if properly structured?YesYesYesYesYes
Withholding tax on payments to foreign beneficiaries?35%0%15%30%30%
Foundation RegistrationSwitzerlandLiechtensteinLuxembourgDelawareNevada
Recommended entity type?Private foundationPrivate foundationPrivate foundationPrivate foundationPrivate foundation
Time to register a new foundation?4 weeks4 weeks4 weeks2 weeks2 weeks
Minimum members of council members / directors / legal representatives?32111
Resident council member / director / representative required?YesYes1 director if tradingNoNo
Minimum number of beneficiaries?11111
Can the beneficiaries be corporate entities?YesYesYesYesYes
Can the beneficiaries be individuals?YesYesYesYesYes
Minimum statutory paid up capital?€ 50,000€ 30,000€ 50,000US$1US$1
Minimum amount of assets put under foundation management?€ 50,000€ 30,000€ 50,000US$1US$1
Shelf foundations available?YesYesYesYesYes
Public register of council members and beneficiaries?YesYesYes
Business ConsiderationsSwitzerlandLiechtensteinLuxembourgDelawareNevada
Good entity for holding global assets?YesYesYesYesYes
Good entity to trade with global customers?YesNoYesYesYes
Can secure charitable status?YesYesYesYesYes
Our Client needs to travel to complete foundation registration?NoNoNoNoNo
Temporary physical office solutions available?YesYesYesYesYes
Local bank signatory required?NoNoNoNoNo
Can be wholly foreign managed?NoYesYesYesYes
The entity will likely be regulated by?Federal Foundation Supervisory AuthoritySTIFAMinistry of JusticeState of DelawareNevada Secretary of State
Monthly VAT reporting to the Government always required?NoNoNoNoNo
Must sign an office lease agreement during incorporation?YesYesYesYesYes
Shareholders & directors documents to be attested/translated?YesYesYesYesYes
Each foreign director / council member needs a personal tax number?NoNoNoNoNo
Foreign director / council member needs a residence visa?NoNoNoNoNo
Requires to hire staff in the country of registration?1 directorNo1 director if tradingNoNo
Can secure residence visa for directors or staff members?YesYesYesYesYes
Other useful informationSwitzerlandLiechtensteinLuxembourgDelawareNevada
This country is a member of WIPO/TRIPS?YesYesYesYesYes
This country is a member of the ICSID?YesNoYesYesYes
Average monthly office rental? (per sq. m)€ 60€ 30€ 50US$40US$20
Minimum statutory monthly salary?€ 4,700None€ 1,999US$1,320US$1,320
US$ deposit interest rate? (1 year average)0%0%0.4%1.09%1.18%
Overseas remittance currency controls?NoNoNoNoNo
Banking considerationsSwitzerlandLiechtensteinLuxembourgDelawareNevada
Multi-currency bank accounts available?YesYesYesYesYes
Corporate visa debit cards available?YesYesYesYesYes
Quality of e-banking platform?ExcellentExcellentExcellentExcellentExcellent
Crowd funding available in this country?YesYesYesYesYes

Contact us

For additional information on our incorporation services, please contact our in-house country expert, Mr. Simon Guidecoq, directly:
client relationship officer - Simon